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Characteristics
of
Post-Classical
Latin

Grammar

Glossary

Word Formation:
Prefixes
Suffixes
Bibliography

 

Prefixes


Note: Besides their prepositional idea, prefixes sometimes act as intensifiers ("very; completely").
            The consonant on the end of the prefix sometimes changes or assimilates (ad + similo, -are, cf. similis) to match the beginning consonant of the verb stem.
                        e.g. ad-curr
ō becomes accurrō
            The vowel of the verb stem may weaken when a prefix is added. (see Linguistic Rules)
                        e.g. re-capi
ō become recipiō
*may take a dative


a/ab-   (This does not assimilate; it uses the alternate form ā-
            [ferō only has au-ferō].  If it looks assimilated, it is from ad-)
            away from
            e
ō: I go                                   abeō: I go away

*ad-     (or assimilated) to, towards, in addition
            sum: I am                               adsum: I am present
            curr
ō: I run                              ac-currō: run to

amb(i)-  round, round about
            e
ō: I go                                   ambiō: I go around

*ante-  before
            capi
ō: I take                           antecapiō: to receive beforehand

*circum-  around
            veni
ō: I come                         circumveniō: I surround
            spect
ō: I look                         circumspectō: I look around

*con-   together, completely, very, greatly, deeply, forcibly
            voc
ō: I call                              convocō: I call together

contra-  against, opposite
            d
īcō: I say                              contradīcō: I contradict

d
ē-       down, away, aside, out, off, utterly, completely
            d
ūcō: I lead                            dēdūcō: I lead down

dis/d
ī- apart, away, in different directions, not
            curr
ō: I run                              discurrō: I run in different directions
             mitt
ō: I send                          dīmittō: I send away

ē/ex-    out from; exceedingly, up
            e
ō: I go                                   exeō: I go out of

extra-  on the outside, without, besides, except
            naturalis: natural                   extranaturalis: beyond nature; not natural

*in-      (added to verbs)  into, in, on, upon, against
            veni
ō: I come                         inveniō: (I come upon) I find
in-        (added to adjectives)  not, un-
            certus: certain                        incertus: not certain, uncertain
            mort
ālis: mortal                     immortālis: immortal, not mortal

*inter-  between, (among)
            c
ēdō: I grant                           intercēdō: I go in between

*ob-     opposite, against, towards, to, over
            e
ō: I go                                   obeō:  I meet
            sede
ō: I sit                             obsideō: I sit near; besiege

per-     through, thoroughly, very, completely
            veni
ō: I come                         perveniō: I get to, reach

*post-  after
            pon
ō: I put                              postponō: consider of secondary
                                                            importance; neglect


*prae- before, in front, very, (forth)
            mitt
ō: I send                           praemittō: I send ahead

praeter-  past, by, beyond, besides
            e
ō: I go                                   praetereō: I pass by, overtake

*pro(d)-  forth, forward; (out, away, instead of, prefer, before, in front)
            p
ōnō: I put                              prōpōnō: I put forward
            c
ēdō: I go                               prōcēdō: I go forward

re(d)-   back
            e
ō: I go                                   redeō: I go back

s
ē-       apart, separately
            pon
ō                                       sēponō: put on one side, place apart
           
d
ūcō                                       sēdūcōtake or lead apart

*sub-   under, up (from beneath), rather, somewhat, a little, secretly
            capi
ō: I take                           suscipiō: I undertake

*super-            over, above
            sum: I am                               supersum: I am left over

supra- on the upper side, on the top, above
            ascend
ō: I climb                   suprascandō: I climb over

trans-  across, over
            e
ō: I go                                   transeō: I go across
            iaci
ō: I throw                           trānsiciō: I throw across

ultra-    on the other side, beyond, farther, over, more, besides

*May take a dative.  Translate the verb stem first, then any accusative direct object, then the prefix, then any dative. 
          e.g. antepono:  I put (acc.) ______ before (dative) ___________

Suffixes:
Nouns
Adjectives
Adverbs
Verbs

Nouns


- (t)i
ō, i(t)iōnis/ siō, siōnis, f. abstract noun denoting an act: "a ________ing";
                            or result = English -tion
            n
ārrō, nārrāre: tell                  nārrātiō: a telling, narration
            incurr
ō, (-cursus)                   incursiō: an incursion
                        run into, attack

-tus, -t
ūs/ -sus, -sūs, m.  (especially from fourth princ. part of verbs)
            mone
ō, -ēre, uī, monitus       monitus:a warning

-t
ās, -tātis, f.    1. <adjective - expresses quality or condition
                        2. <noun - act, office, condition or characteristic (abstract)
                         
sometimes also a collective idea
                        = English -ty
            brevis, -e: brief                      brevit
ās: brevity; briefness
            c
īvis: citizen                           cīvitas: citizenship; citizenry, state

-tor, -t
ōris, m. (agent; one who ___s) (English -er, -or, -tor)
-sor, -s
ōris, m.
            spect
ō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus         spectātor: spectator, observer
            curr
ō, -ere, cucurrī, cursus    cursor: runner

-(t)ia, -ae, f.    1. <adjective - abstract quality or condition
                        2. <noun - abstract act, office, condition, or characteristic
           
            -ia sometimes also expresses a collective
                        (English -ce, -ship, -(t)y, -ness, -tude)
            am
īcus, -ī: friend                   amīcitia: friendship
            pr
ūdens, (-tis): prudent         prūdentia: prudence, wisdom                     

-or,
ōris, m. (signifies activity, condition, or state, especially of emotions)
            am
ō: love                               amor: love
            dole
ō: grieve                         dolor: grief

-mentum, -
ī, nt. (denotes a means or instument; sometimes place)
           
ōrnō, -āre: adorn                   ōrnāmentum: ornament, decoration

-men, -minis, nt. (denotes a means or instrument; sometimes agent or act)
            flu
ō: flow                                  flūmen: river

-t
ūdō, tūdinis, f. (English -ship, -(t)y, -ness, -tude)
            l
ātus-a-um: wide                     lātitūdō: width (noun)

-t
ūra, -ae, f. (denotes an act)
            scr
ībō, scrīptus: write            scrīptūra: a writing, composition

-(b)ulum, -
ī, nt. (denotes a means or instrument)
            curr
ō: run                                curriculum: race; racetrack; lap

-(t)ium, -
ī, nt. (denotes an act, office, condition, or characteristic)(also used of a place or a collective idea)
            stude
ō: be eager                   studium: zeal, enthusiasm

-trum, -
ī, nt. (denotes a means, instrument, or act)
            monstr
ō, -āre: show               monstrum: sign, porten; monster

-trīx, -tricis, f. (female agent; English -tress, -trix)
            n
ūtrio: nurse; nourish           nūtrīx: nurse

-t
ūs, -tūtis, f. (denotes an act, office, condition, or characteristic; sometimes also a collective)
            vir: man                                  virt
ūs: manliness, bravery; virtue
            iuvenis                                    iuventūs youth

 

Adjectives
 

-eus, -a, -um  "made of; characteristic of; becoming" (English -y)
            aurum,
ī: gold             aureus: golden, made of gold
             fl
ōs, flōris: flower                   flōreus: flowery

-
ōsus, -a, -um  "full of" (English -ose, -ous, -ful)
            per
īculum: danger                 perīculōsus: dangerous

-
ēnsis, -e "pertaining to, belonging to (especially to a place)"
            Ath
ēnae: Athens                   Athēniēnsis: Athenian

-(
ā)nus, -a, -um "pertaining to" (English -an)
            hom
ō: human being                        hūmānus: human
            R
ōma: Rome                         Rōmānus: Roman
           
-icus, -a, -um "pertaining to" (English -ic)
            populus: the populace          publicus: belonging to the people
            nauta: sailor                           nauticus: nautical; sailors'

-(
ā)lis, -e/ -āris, -e  "pertaining to" (English -al, -il; -ary)
            n
āvis: ship                              nāvālis: naval
            mors: death                           mort
ālis: mortal
            familia: household                famili
āris: domestic, household
            m
īles: soldier                         mīlitāris: military

-ius, -a, -um "pertaining to, belonging to"
           pater    father                                   patrius paternal, of a father (cf. patria [terra] fatherland)
           rex        king                                     regius royal, of a king
           Galli     the Gauls                            Gallia [terra]  Gaul                            

-idus, -a, -um "signifies a state of settled condition"
            time
ō: I fear                            timidus: being in a continual state of fear; timid

-(
ā)tus, -a, -um "provided with" (English -ed, -ate)
            toga: toga                               tog
ātus: wearing a toga

-(b)ilis, -e (English -ble, -able, -ible)
            faci
ō: do                                 facilis: doable

-
āx, (genitive -ācis) adjective expressing a tendency (English -acious; -ive)
            aude
ō: dare                           audāx: daring, audacious

-trix (-tricis)  (from verb stem) English -ive


Adverbs
 

-ē (from -us/-er, -a, -um adjectives) (English -ly; in a ___ manner)
            tardus: slow                            tard
ē: slowly

-(i)ter  (from 3rd declension adjectives)
            celer: quick                            celeriter: quickly
            d
īligēns: careful                     dīligenter: carefully
-(t)im
            partim: in part, partly
 

Verbs

-scō, -scere (inceptive- to enter a state) "begin to, become" 
            (Note: the -sc
- suffix is only in the present system; it drops in the perfect)
           
īra: anger                   īrāscor, -scī, īrātus: to become angry
                                                nosc
ō, -ere: come to know; learn
                                                (pft. n
ōvi, notus: know)

-t
ō / -sō (frequentative and intensive) (usually 1st conjugation)
            dic
ō: say                                dictō, -āre: say repeatedly; dictate
            vide
ō: see                              vīsō, -ere: to visit

 

Bibliography
Paul R. Jenks, A Manual of Latin Word Formation for Secondary Schools
            Boston, D.C. Heath & Co., 1911.
Charleton T. Lewis and Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary. Oxford, Clarendon
            Press, 1879.
Greenough, J.B. et alAllen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar ¶ 227-267

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